Addition rates range from less than 1% to more than 10%, depending on the internal phase ratio, product, water quality and performance criteria. More than 70% by weight of oil can be used.
Our bio-based emulsion stabilisers are only moderately surface active. Consequently, an effective method, e.g., high shear for reducing oil droplet size, must be used in the emulsification step. For example, a paraffin emulsion can be prepared with a 2.0% dosage of Borregaard biopolymer using an Ultra-Turrax homogeniser.
Since Borregaard’s biopolymers are completely soluble in water, emulsification may be performed batch-wise or with a continuous addition of oil to the water phase containing the lignin-based additive.
Emulsification of low melting point solids can be prepared by melting the solid and emulsifying it while still molten. Nonionic surfactants should be avoided as they can impair emulsion stability and increase the rate of creaming. If required, they should be added at the end of the manufacturing process.